The RFO should be transparent about the policies and processes used to monitor funded grants. In doing so, the RFO may need to distinguish between how it monitors RPOs through audit and individual researchers or research groups through periodic reporting. Currently monitoring is often limited to expenditure of funding and progress against original scientific objectives in the grant agreement, with the possibility to make amendments if needed. To these should be added, at a minimum, compliance with good publication and dissemination practices, including, but not limited to standards for open science and FAIR data principles, and receipt of training in RI. These monitoring processes themselves should adhere to best practices of research assessment.